Butterflies and Moths of Sri Lanka

 

Classification OF LEPIDOPTERA


Classification

 

Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (called lepidopterans). It is one of the most speciose orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies and found virtually everywhere. Lepidoptera contains more than 180,000 species in 128 families and 47superfamilies. Estimates of species suggest that the order may have more species and is among the four largest, successful orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and the Coleoptera.

CONTENT

1. Biological Classification

2. Concise Classification of Lepidoptera

3. Detailed Classification of Lepidoptera

4. Family Classification of Lepidoptera


5. Classification of Lepidoptera of Sri Lanka

6. Checklist of Butterflies of Sri Lanka

7. List of Moths of Sri Lanka

8. List of Endemic Butterflies of Sri Lanka


Refferences and Further Readings


1. Biological Classification

Although the main hirachy levels of classification of life are accepted by everyone, there are many Classification systems used by deffrent groups of scientists (taxonomist, biologists etc.). Even those sysytems are being continously changed. Most arguments ocuur on the hirachy below Family/superfamily level. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature  defines the ranks on normenclature [#ref_0001].

Example:

Kindom Animalia (Animals)

. . Phylum Arthopoda (Arthropods)

. . . . Class Insecta (Insects)

. . . . . . Order Lepidotera (Butterflies and Moths)

. . . . . . . . No Taxon (Moths)

. . . . . . . . . .. Supperfamily Noctuoidea

. . . . . . . . . . . . Family Noctuidae

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subfamly Arctiinae (Tiger and Lichen Moths)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tribe Arctiini (Tiger Moths)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subtribe Callmorphinae

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Utetheisa

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Species pulchella 

 

CONTENT

 
 
 

Biological_Classification

Figure 01: The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks

Taxonomic ranks
Magnorder
Domain/Superkingdom Superphylum/Superdivision Superclass Superorder Superfamily Superspecies
Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Legion Order Family Tribe Genus Species
Subkingdom Subphylum Subclass Cohort Suborder Subfamily Subtribe Subgenus Subspecies
Infrakingdom/Branch Infraphylum Infraclass Infraorder Alliance Infraspecies
Microphylum Parvclass Parvorder
   
   
   

2. Concise Classification of Lepidoptera

Classification

CONTENT


References and Further Readings (General Classification)

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. - International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, XXIX + 306 pp

Categories Section 5 and Metaphysics Book 6, but the terms are used in many places throughout the writings of Aristotle.

Joel Cracraft and Michael J. Donaghue, eds. (2004). Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

C. Linnaeus (1735). Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species.

H. Copeland (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quarterly review of biology 13: 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568.

H. F. Copeland (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books.

 Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163 (863): 150–60. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760.

C. R. Woese, W. E. Balch, L. J. Magrum, G. E. Fox and R. S. Wolfe (August 1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9(4): 305–311. doi:10.1007/BF01796092. PMID 408502.

Woese CR, Fox GE (November 1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms"Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (11): 5088–90.PMID 270744.

Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya."Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576

CONTENT

>>> References and Further Readings (continue..)


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